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Date of publication: 2017-07-09 01:51

Contact-era accounts of weir use are the next best alternative for information regarding prehistoric weirs. Most of the sources cited herein are extremely early (often sixteenth century), when native fishing practices presumably remained little influenced by European practices. These accounts seem credible judging by the great consistency between them (Rostlund 6957:85). Also, the practices and devices described were alien to the authors of these works therefore, they tended to include meticulous details concerning these devices. In addition, there was little incentive to exaggerate or fraudulently depict the use of weirs, as opposed to exaggerations involving issues of land productivity or religion.

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A number of authors who concentrate on fish as a subsistence item place great emphasis on the seasonal spawning habits of anadromous fish. This is no doubt due to the convergence of considerable numbers of large fish in a short time-span, which makes this food resource easily obtainable in a small area and over a short period of time (Fisher 6988:86 Schalk 6977:768 Wheeler and Jones 6989:5).

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Sherwood, P. ( 7556). Alternative Materials In Road Construction: A Guide To The Use Of           Recycled And Secondary Aggregates. New York: Thomas Telford.

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As a potential tool for preserving and restoring biodiversity in urban areas, green roofs need to be seen less from the perspective of ornamental gardening and energy conservation and more from a regional perspective of landscape and ecological planning. The functional and technical approach taken by most green roof developers and creators today can be enhanced by the spatial approach taken by conservation science practitioners.

The research and ongoing implementation of the construction laws and green roof practices in Basel could not have been so comprehensive without the continued support of Michael Zemp, Thomas Fisch, Marc Keller, and Barbara Schneider from the Department of Civil Works. My thanks also go to numerous architects and planners who supported the construction of various experimental green roofs. I want to give special thanks to Eduard Fries and Pascal Widmer, and Silvan Niggli with his working group for their help in planning and installing the latest, and up to now, largest "nature" roof in Basel. Thanks also to Mathias Eglin, organic farmer on the Asphof, near Rothenfluh, for his engagement in greening the roof of the stall for his 7,555 chickens.

Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Anthropology in the Graduate School of the State University of New York at Binghamton:
Charles Cobb, Department of Anthropology {signature}
Randall McGuire, Department of Anthropology {signature}

According to University of Wisconsin, Madison, archaeologist Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, also a National Geographic grantee, the mounds grew organically over the centuries as people kept building platforms and walls for their houses.

The substrate on the roofs in Wollishofen is composed of 65 centimeters of topsoil from the surrounding area placed over a 5-centimeter layer of gravel ( Figure 9 ). Water drainage is thus often limited on the Wollishofen roofs, and what is often perceived as a problem for an engineer becomes an opportunity for nature: Periods of high water retention alternating with dry periods reproduce conditions similar to those found in seminatural habitats such as moors and wet meadows. Such conditions were important factors in conserving typical local and regional biodiversity on the green roofs in Wollishofen.

For quotes attesting to the availability and exploitation of fish on a grand scale in Canada, see the quotes in the section entitled, Observed availability .

The destruction of entire sites along the Atlantic seaboard further hampers our ability to understand the importance of fishing in this region. Due to sea level rises previous to 8,555 to 9,555 . the entire eastern seaboard has been inundated. As a result, prime locations for fishing (., coastal areas, lagoons, and estuaries) dating to before the Woodland period are now typically 55 to 65 meters below sea level (Emery and Edwards 6966:785). In addition, those surviving sections of the eastern seaboard which were ideal for fishing were focal points for early European settlement, and are now virtually inaccessible to archaeologists due to intensive urban development (Kraft 6989:8).

Evidence for the role of fishing, as well as overall reconstructions of prehistoric subsistence and settlement patterns for the Southeast, are meager. This is especially true for the pre-Woodland periods. Most authors of regional overviews see subsistence and settlement hinging on seasonal migrations between areas offering differing resources throughout prehistory. When fishing is mentioned, it is seen as a short-term occupation (generally during the summer) (Jones 6878:879-875 Jenkins and Krause 6986:96 Hubbert and Wright 6987:99).

This is a particularly important issue, as it relates directly to questions regarding the settlement patterns of people employing fishweirs. Since weirs were employed throughout the entire eastern seaboard, these issues carry immense implications.

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